Students begin to recognize and understand simple compound words, such as airplane and toothbrush, in first grade, then progress to more complex compound words. Students learn that compound words are made up of two whole words that function as a single unit of meaning, and that the two words give clues to the meaning of the compound word. Students also begin to notice that there are many compound word families that use the same base word, such as house (doghouse, birdhouse, farmhouse).
There are three different types of compound words:
- Closed form: Two words are joined together to create a new meaning (firefly, softball, redhead, keyboard, makeup, notebook).
- Hyphenated form: Words are joined together by a hyphen (daughter-in-law, over-the-counter, six-year-old).
- Open form: Words are open but when read together, a new meaning is formed (post office, real estate, full moon).
Studying compound words offers a great opportunity to engage students in understanding the English language. It builds an interest in words and will help prepare students to learn prefixes, suffixes, and word roots.
VocabularySpellingCity provides free ready-made word lists and interactive learning games to further engage students in compound word study. Leveled compound word lists range from elementary to high school. Lists can be paired with learning games, like Read-A-Word, to build compound word practice and mastery.
To help engage your students and instill long-term learning of compound words, try a classroom activity like “Compound Words Day,” in which students come to school wearing objects that are compound words (see photo above ). You can have your students go on a scavenger hunt at home or using items you supply in the classroom. The kids can attach the items to their clothes or a hat, and describe them in class, or go “on parade” to another classroom to show their creativity and what they learned.
Common Core State Standards Related to Compound Words
Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly, bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
1st Grade Compound Words:
- bluebird, starfish, sunset, bathtub, sandbox, sailboat, flagpole, teacup, backpack, playpen
2nd Grade Compound Words:
- List 1: suntan, notebook, inside, myself, outside, birdhouse, homework, birthday, without, something
- List 2: butterfly, footprint, goldfish, ladybug, mailbox, raincoat, snowman
- List 3: seesaw, rainbow, cupcake, sunshine, airplane, lunchbox, lipstick, barnyard, anyone, cowboy
3rd Grade Compound Words:
- List 1: downtown, teaspoon, airport, grandmother, snowflake, afternoon, drumstick, baseball, racetrack, handshake
- List 2: toothbrush, sunburn, underwater, flashlight, newspaper, peanut, textbook, doorbell, rowboat, spaceship
- List 3: anthill, backyard, daylight, earring, handstand, scorekeeper, seashell, shoelace, sunrise, yearbook
4th Grade Compound Words:
- List 1: dishwasher, playground, teammate, yardstick, windshield, fisherman, saltwater, weekend, homesick, mailbox
- List 2: cardboard, downstairs, fingerprint, haircut, lifeguard, sandpaper, sidewalk, sunlight, thunderstorm, toothpaste
5th Grade Compound Words:
- List 1: earthquake, countdown, candlestick, barefoot, bathrobe, classroom, fingernail, roommate, dashboard, overdue
- List 2: breakfast, shipwreck, tombstone, wildlife, guardrail, suitcase, surfboard, tiptoe, lighthouse, chairperson
6th Grade Compound Words:
- courthouse, landslide, windmill, goalkeeper, coastline, homemade, sawdust, drawstring, skateboard, flashback
7th Grade Compound Words:
- heartbreak, whirlpool, daredevil, earache, pitfall, thumbtack, password, wallpaper, soundtrack, newborn
8th Grade Compound Words:
- darkroom, masterpiece, sightseeing, drawback, milestone, landmark, stomachache, halfway, newcomer, daydream
9th Grade Compound Words:
- mankind, viewpoint, guideline, headfirst, straightforward, icebreaker, throughout, marketplace, driftwood, whirlwind
10th Grade Compound Words:
- levelheaded, threadbare, thoroughfare, layman, hindsight, awestruck, timberline, sharecropper, lackluster, pigeonhole
VocabularySpellingCity.com provides word lists, printables, and interactive games and activities that give students the opportunity to use their knowledge of indvidual words to predict the meaning of compound words.
Try Read-A-Word with the 2nd Grade Compound Words list.